Easy Step'n,
 Askelmoottorikirja 
kokeilijoille 
David Benson


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  • Square 1 Electronicsin , "Easy Step'n", An Introduction to Stepper Motors for the Experimenter,"  selittää  lukijalla  kuinka määritellään moottorin sähköiset ja mekaaniset ominaisuudet helposti rakennettavilla sähköisillä ja mekaanisilla testilaitteilla. Lukija  oppii kuinka suunnitellaan ja rakennetaan mikro-ohjaimeen perustuva ohjausjärjestelmä ja suunnitellaan ohjainpiirit, kuinka kytketään tehoasteet moottorin käämeihin. Kirja neuvoo kaiken kädestä pitäen ja  on täynnä esimerkkejä. Kirja käyttää toimintakaavioita ja kirjassa on monia esimerkkejä

    Tätä englanninkielistä kirjaa ei myydä kirjakaupoissa:

    Kirjoittaja   David Benson (A4, 200 sivua). David on kirjoittanut myös "Easy PIC'n", "PIC'n Up the Pace," ja  "PIC'n Techniques", kirjat , jotka käsittelevät  Microchip's PICmicro® mikro-ohjaimia.

    Ohjelma koodit

    Arvostelu: 

    Kirja sopii nykyajan robottiharrastajan ensimmäiseksi moottorikirjaksi. Jos et ole tehnyt mitään itse, tällä kirjalla on hyvä aloittaa . David Bensonin mekaniikkainsinööritausta antaa erilaisen pohjan kuin pelkät ohjelmointiin liittyvät kirjoitukset. Eriyisesti kirjassa näytetään mitä vanhoista laitteista saaduista askelmoottoreilla voi tehdä. Rakennettavat ohjaimet näytetään reikälevylle rakennettuina versioina.   

    Pidä tämä kirja aina hyllyssä kun alat tekemään asioita askelmoottoreiden kanssa.

    Pekka Ritamäki 

    Suomen Robottiyhdistys, http://robotti.wikidot.com


    EASY STEP'n,
    An Introduction to Stepper Motors for the Experimenter from Square 1 Electronics,
    written by David Benson
    Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION

    Terminology

    Coil vs. winding vs. phase

    Stepper Motor Types

    Stepper Motor Specifications

    Stepper Motor Selection Criteria

    Stepper Motor Sizes

  • NEMA "Teen" Cubes
  • NEMA Size 23 Cylinders
  • Stacked Cans With Diamond-Shaped Mounting Flange

    Rough Motor Specs - Based On My Experiments

    Gear Puller

    GETTING STARTED

    4-Phase Stepper Motors

  • Exercise motor with four SPST toggle switches and a power supply

    Testing 5-wire and 6-wire motors
    - Full steps - one winding energized (wave drive)
    - Full steps - two adjacent windings energized in each
      detent position (normal mode)
    - Half steps - alternately one winding energized, two
      adjacent windings energized
    Testing an 8-wire motor

    2-Phase Stepper Motors

  • Determine wiring with ohmmeter
  • Exercise motor with two DPDT on-off-on toggle switches and a
        power supply
    - Full steps - one winding energized (wave drive)

    - Full steps - two windings energized (normal mode)

    - Half step sequence - alternately one winding energized,
      two windings energized

    MICROCONTROLLER-BASED STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL - INTRODUCTION

  • PICMicro (R) instruction set
  • Hexadecimal notation
  • Compare using PICMicro(R)
  • Interrupt service and saving context

    TEST CIRCUITS OVERVIEW

    Overview

    Test Board for Exercising Stepper Motors

  • Pulser
  • Switches And Pull-ups
  • Construction Techniques And Board Design
  • Pulser software
  • Testing the pulser

    Translators

  • PIC16F84A translator (unipolar bit pattern)
    - Software design

    - Hardware design

    - Code

    - Testing the PIC16F84A unipolar translator

  • PIC16F84A translator (bipolar bit pattern)
    - Design

    - Code

    - Testing the PIC16F84A bipolar translator

    Simple Drivers

    Unipolar

  • Simple ULN2803A driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A
        translator and a ULN2803A unipolar driver
  • Simple TIP120 driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A
        translator and a TIP120 unipolar driver
  • UCN5804B translator/driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser and a UCN5804B translator/driver

    Bipolar

  • H-Bridge
  • L293D driver (dual H-bridge)
  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A
        translator and an L293D bipolar driver
  • L298N driver (dual H-bridge)
  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A,
        translator and an L298N biopolar driver

    TORQUE MEASUREMENT

  • Motor (what's available) via lever arm and weights
    - Holding, add weight until slips
    - Moving, add weight until won't turn
  • Application (what's required) via lever arm and weights
  • Lever arms and fishing sinkers

    MAXIMUM STEP RATE MEASUREMENT

    MICROCONTROLLER-BASED STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL

    Unipolar

  • Simple unipolar stepper control - straight line code
    Full steps - one winding energized

    How to reverse direction

    Change delay time to change speed

  • Table lookup and counter to get bit pattern for each step
    Full steps - two windings energized

    Half step sequence

  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller,
        PIC16F84A translator and a ULN2803A or TIP 120 unipolar driver
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller and a UCN5804B translator/driver

    Bipolar

  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller and
        an L293D or L298N bipolar driver

    HIGH PERFORMANCE DRIVE CIRCUITS - Current Control

  • Limitations of voltage control and need for high performance current control

    Unipolar

  • SLA7024M unipolar driver - Allegro
  • Exercising a unipolar stepper motor using a pulser, PIC16F84A
        translator and a SLA7024M driver
    - Maximum stepping rate at higher than rated voltage
    - Torque operating at higher than rated voltage

    Bipolar

  • L297/L298N bipolar translator/driver
  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a pulser and a L297/L298N translator/driver
    - Maximum stepping rate at higher than rated voltage

    - Torque operating at higher than rated voltage

  • Exercising a bipolar stepper motor using a microcontroller and a     L297/L298N translator/driver

    Controlling A STEPPER MOTOR WITH A PC

  • Serial port, parallel port
  • Programming languages
  • Port board, not mother board

    MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Mounting The Stepper Motor And Heat Dissipation

    Grabbing On To The Shaft = Mechanical Connection

  • Avoid damaging the shaft (clamp, flat, split hub)
  • Shaft couplings - alignment, flex
  • Avoid applying a thrust load to the shaft

    Converting Rotary Motion To Linear Motion

    Mechanics

  • Torque
  • Inertia

    Position - Home Or Starting Position Sensor

  • Test for accuracy

    Backlash

    NEMA 23 Tester

    PRINTER EXPERIMENT

  • Software design
  • Code snippet
  • Implement your design

    QUICK STEP'n

  • Test Hardware
  • Software design details
  • Home Position
  • Ramping up/down and rapid traverse
    - Ramping up - acceleration

    - Ramping down - deceleration
  • Speed - rapid traverse
  • Destination
  • More software details
  • Code

    APPENDIX A - Fast Diodes

    APPENDIX B - Parts Lists

    APPENDIX C - Sources

    APPENDIX D - Program Listings vs. Page Number


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